The Universal Thought

Tuesday, December 25, 2012

Pharoahe Monch, Flatbush Zombies, Sean Price + More Talk Worst/Best Christmas Gifts/Songs

@Nas Says Any Rapper That Throws A Shot At Him (Its An Automatic Loss)

Quentin Tarantino Compares Drug Incarcerations To Slavery

U.S. News Reports:Where the Jobs Will Be in 2020 Urban areas with high demand for educated workers are the best bets for finding work. By PHILIP MOELLER

We know which kinds of jobs will be most plentiful over the next eight years until 2020. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projects that positions in healthcare and social assistance, professional and business services, and construction will represent more than half of the 20.5 million new jobs it expects to be created by 2020. [See The Best Healthcare Jobs.] More than 34 million additional job openings will be available to replace workers leaving the labor force. And of the five occupations expected to have the largest number of openings, only one of them, nursing, requires an associate's degree or higher. More to the point, those five occupations don't create economic growth but reflect growth that's being driven in other, higher-skilled sectors of a local economy. These "driver" careers increasingly demand college and advanced degrees. Educational attainment is thus a powerful predictor of where you should look for work. The Brookings Institution, a prominent Washington, D.C., think tank, has assembled extensive information on the economic vitality of the nation's 100 largest metropolitan areas, as well as data on the extent to which these regional hubs are being powered by highly educated workers. Nationally, about 32 percent of the adult (25 and older) populations of these areas hold at least a bachelor's degree. Employers, however, want a much higher percentage of their employees to have such degrees. And in the "high education" markets and professions, jobs in greatest demand are into the 50-percent and 60-percent range. The correlation between economic growth and an educated workforce is strong enough to produce this message: Education will drive future U.S. economic growth. "In the long run, the factor that is by far the most important is the education gap" between an area's workforce and the education requirements needed by local employers, says Jonathan Rothwell, an associate fellow at Brookings and the author of its recent study on the educational component of future job growth. "Metro areas with a well-educated labor force compared with industry demand have performed more strongly and will continue to do so for the next 10 years." [See The 10 Best Jobs of 2012.] Brookings looked at online job postings from early 2012 to study which metro areas were doing well and which jobs were most plentiful. Its results closely track BLS projections, Rothwell says, except for showing somewhat stronger opportunities for computer jobs. He attributes this to the greater likelihood that employers would seek computer-job applicants online than companies trying to fill other kinds of jobs. Here are the 10 jobs Brookings found to have the largest numbers of online openings: 1. Computer Occupations: 859,833 2. Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners: 443,611 3. Other Management Occupations: 196,199 4. Financial Specialists: 184,312 5. Business Operations Specialists: 183,574 6. Sales Representatives, Services: 178,859 7. Engineers: 177,581 8. Information and Record Clerks: 177,194 9. Advertising, Marketing, Promotions, Public Relations, and Sales Managers: 168,646 10. Supervisors of Sales Workers: 164,610 All but two (information and record clerks, and supervisors of sales workers) require high levels of education. Further, high percentages of existing workers in these occupations had undergraduate or graduate college degrees. Brookings also provided U.S. News with a list of the 10 metro areas with the highest demand for workers with at least a bachelor's degree as a percentage of overall job openings, as well as a list of the 10 jobs with the most openings in each area. It's important to factor in a metro area's total employment when considering the appeal of a certain type of job. Open jobs for computer occupations are certainly appealing in San Jose, Calif., accounting for an astounding three of every eight job openings earlier this year. But the numbers of job openings for computer occupations may actually be greater in bigger local labor markets, even if this occupation's share of overall job openings there is less than it is in San Jose. For More...http://money.usnews.com/money/careers/articles/2012/09/10/where-the-jobs-will-be-in-2020

U.S. News Reports: 72 Percent of Republicans Fear New Year By KENNETH T. WALSH

For Republicans, it may be the season to be jolly, but not optimistic. Seventy-two percent of Republicans are fearful about their future in 2013, and 79 percent fear for the world, according to a new Washington Post-ABC News poll. This is a substantial increase in GOP gloom since 2006, when only 20 percent said they were fearful about their personal future during the Republican presidency of George W. Bush. Fifty-four percent of Republicans were fearful about their personal prospects after Democrat Barack Obama won the presidency in 2008. [ENJOY: Political Cartoons on President Obama] In contrast, three-quarters of Democrats are hopeful about their own lives today, the same as in 2008, the poll found, as are half of independents. Overall, 53 percent of Americans say they are hopeful for themselves in 2013, and 44 percent are more fearful, but 56 percent are more fearful for the world in general. This represents a decline in optimism from four years ago, when President Obama was poised to take office and when 63 percent said they were hopeful about their future. [RELATED: Public Sours on What 2013 Will Bring] Among the reasons cited by the pollsters for the relatively unsettled mood are perceptions of a lingering recession and a weak economic recovery, and fears of the economic sinking into trouble if Washington leaders fail to reach an agreement on the budget. More than three-quarters say the economy is still in a recession, despite some signs of improvement. About 53 percent say that based on their own experience, the economy has begun to recover, though weakly. While 55 percent are optimistic about the policies of President Obama in his second term, 51 percent are pessimistic about the ability of Obama and congressional Republicans to work together. Obama and congressional leaders are involved in negotiations to find a compromise that would avoid the "fiscal cliff" of automatic tax hikes and spending cuts that are scheduled to start phasing in January 1. More News: Study: No Candidate Could Have Beaten Obama Santa Obama: Fed Workers Get Christmas Eve Off Apocalypse Porn for Doomsday Preppers Ken Walsh covers the White House and Congress for U.S. News. He writes the daily blog, "Ken Walsh's Washington," for usnews.com, and is the author of "The Presidency" column for the U.S. News Weekly. He can be reached at kwalsh@usnews.com, and followed on Facebook and Twitter.

Dr. Umar Johnson - Where's My Daddy?: Debunking the Dead Beat Dad Syndrome (Sneak Preview)

Dr. Umar Johnson - Wheres My Daddy?: Debunking the Dead Beat Dad Syndrome (Sneak Preview)

Sunday, December 23, 2012

The Lesson of the Year...Personal Reflection: Are You Willing to Change your Perception of History to Get to Your Future?

Overall this year, Life in general has been very extraordinary as if I was living some retarded 90's flick with your average roller coasters including bills, work, jealous selfless bitches, and death. As the ride continues and I ride the ride blindfolded, I try to think with a clear and stress free mind but achievement is far within my reach. As the year begin, I asked myself one simple question and the answer finally appeared recently in the most strange way. You see the year before I asked myself, Can you face your demons and be true to yourself? It took everything in me to do it but I was able to complete my task and answer the question for myself at the end of the year. So my question for this year was quite obvious for the following year after I notice how much communication with close ones have faded to black because they were fake. Fake in every sense of the word when it comes to how they communicated, loves, and honesty cared for me or anything involving my life. As the year when by with a flash, people were dropping like files out of my life. Some were a shock to go and others just reveal to my conscience what I was thinking was not far from the truth. I asked myself at the beginning of this year, “Are you willing to change your perception of history to get your future? In the beginning, I was not sure what to think about this question but the answer was laid out all around me. What I consider my history, it had flaws just like the American history that I learned about in school. As this year when by within a flash, more and more truth came to the light. I know who I am and still learning as I go more about myself. The first brick to the foundation was laid down by my grandmother and she pass bricks to me all the way up to her last day in the physical. So far for this year, the question that I seek to answer through out the year has not appear to me yet but it will. When the smoke clears, it would stick out in my mental like a sore thumb and the quest will begin. I share this question with you just like I share all other thoughts as they come to me. Are you willing to change your perception of history to get to your future?You don’t have to answer it for me but answer it for yourself!

Thursday, December 20, 2012

The Latest....News With Lessons to Learn

Dash Cam Video of NJ Police Shooting Robbery Suspect with a Knife in New Jersey

Prison Break: Convicted Bank Robbers Climb Down Bed Sheets From Window

Happy Holidays...Hotest Christmas Ever 2012

Jordan Davis, Teen Shot Over Loud Music, Compared To Trayvon Martin

ATLANTA — The fatal shooting of a Florida teenager who was listening to loud music in a car a week ago has drawn comparisons to the Trayvon Martin case, but the differences are significant. Unlike the Martin case, several people witnessed this shooting and there was no scuffle before 17-year-old Jordan Davis was shot to death. And notably, the man accused of firing into the car was arrested a day later. Michael David Dunn is charged with murder and attempted murder in the Nov. 23 shooting at a Jacksonville, Fla., gas station. The 45-year-old Dunn parked beside the sport utility vehicle occupied by Davis and three other young men and told them to turn the music down, police said. Dunn exchanged words with Davis, who was in the back seat, and started firing. He later told police he felt threatened. His attorney has said Dunn saw a gun and shot in self-defense, perhaps laying the ground work for a case under Florida's "stand your ground" law. Since the shooting, Davis' family has received an outpouring of support from the community. A "Justice for Jordan" Facebook page was set up and his classmates gathered at a memorial service with T-shirts showing Davis' smiling face. Fire trucks saluted him by spraying water over an airplane carrying his body to Atlanta while it was on the runway. The teen's mother lives near Marietta, and a funeral is scheduled for Davis Saturday at the Trinity Chapel Church of God in Powder Springs. Davis' father, Ron, said his son was a typical high school junior who was getting ready to start his first job at McDonald's, looking forward to buying his first car and turning 18 early next year. He had a "million-dollar smile" and liked music, listening to mostly rap but also the sounds of his dad's generation, including James Brown and The Temptations. Standing over his son's casket, Ron Davis promised to fight laws that allow people to carry guns outside of their homes. "Law enforcement should be the only people who should have guns on the street," he said. "That's what's killing our kids more than anything." Police said they didn't find a weapon in the SUV with the young men, and Ron Davis said he doesn't believe Dunn's claim that he saw a gun. He thinks Dunn is searching for an explanation. "They were just 17-year-old kids that were having a good time, coming from the mall," he said.

Hot Picks of Years...Start your Year off Right With the Right Products for Your Body

Thursday, November 15, 2012

The Central Park Five...A Must See! In theaers Nov. 23 and On Demand Dec. 7th

RZA: "I Compare 'Man With the Iron Fists' to 36 Chambers"

Blomberg BusinessWeek Reports: Black Women Continue Making Job Gains

By Matthew Philips on May 04, 2012 Digging through the demographic data in the latest job numbers, one of the clear winners of the last few months has been black women. Since December, they’ve knocked more than 3 percentage points off their unemployment rate, from 13.9 percent to 10.8 percent. That’s the biggest drop over the last five months for any single demographic group broken out by race, sex, and age by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Education, health care, and retail appear to be factors. All three sectors were among those that posted the largest job gains last month. Unemployment among black men dropped from 15.7 percent in December to 13.6 percent in April. For white women, the rate has essentially remained unchanged at 6.8 percent, which is the same rate as white men. Total white unemployment remains well below total black unemployment, though the gap has narrowed over the past year. In April 2011, white unemployment was exactly half that of black unemployment, 8.1 percent compared with 16.2 percent. Now the difference is 6.8 percent compared with 13 percent. Falling unemployment among black women is not a function of people dropping out of the workforce. The employment participation rate of black women has steadily increased over the last few months, from 53.5 percent in December, to 56.1 percent in April. Employment participation has actually fallen among white women, down nearly a full percentage point since April 2011, from 55.6 percent to 54.8 percent. Employment participation remains low for the total population, about 58 percent. That’s down from the most recent high of 64 percent back in 2000, and basically where it was back in the early 1980s. Back then, the dip was a sudden fall followed by a fairly quick recovery. Today, participation has flattened over the past few years, after plummeting from 62 percent beginning in summer 2008. Philips is an associate editor for Bloomberg Businessweek.

Bloomberg Business Reports: The Plight of Young, Black Men Is Worse Than You Think

By Peter Coy on September 28, 2012 The U.S. has the highest incarceration rate of any wealthy nation, with about 2.3 million people behind bars at any given moment. (That’s 730 out of 100,000, vs. just 154 for England and Wales.) There are more people in U.S. prisons than are in the country’s active-duty military. That much is well known. What’s less known is that people who are incarcerated are excluded from most surveys by U.S. statistical agencies. Since young, black men are disproportionately likely to be in jail or prison, the exclusion of penal institutions from the statistics makes the jobs situation of young, black men look better than it really is. That’s the point of a new book, Invisible Men: Mass Incarceration and the Myth of Black Progress, by Becky Pettit, a professor of sociology at the University of Washington. Pettit spoke on Thursday in a telephone press conference. On the day Barack Obama was inaugurated in 2009, Pettit said, “there was hope that perhaps the U.S. was becoming a post-racial society.” But it wasn’t true then, and it’s not true now. The gap between blacks and whites remains wide in employment, income, wealth, and health. And as Bloomberg’s David J. Lynch reported earlier this month: “The nation’s first African-American president hasn’t done much for African-Americans.” The unemployment rate and the employment-to-population ratio reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics are based on a survey of households—people “who are not inmates of institutions (for example, penal and mental facilities and homes for the aged) and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.” The reported figures are bad enough. The employment/population ratio for black males aged 16-24 was 33 percent in August, vs. 52 percent for white males of the same age group. But the black number is skewed upward by the exclusion of jail and prison inmates. The white number is also skewed upward, but less so because a smaller share of young white males are incarcerated. “We’ve developed a distorted idea” of how young, black men are faring, Pettit told reporters on the call, which was hosted by the book’s publisher, the Russell Sage Foundation. The BLS methodology didn’t begin to distort the statistics until the mid-1970s, when the incarceration boom began. I asked Pettit how this problem can be solved. The first thing she recommended was doing more to help young, black men get an education, since there is a strong link between failure in school and a life of crime and imprisonment. A further idea is to reduce the penalties for nonviolent drug crimes, recommended another academic on the call, Ernest Drucker, who is a scholar in residence and senior research associate at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and adjunct professor of epidemiology at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. Imprisoning people for drug offenses can damage their ability to earn a living for the rest of their lives, dooming them to a life of poverty and recidivism, said Drucker, author of A Plague of Prisons. Inimai Chettiar, the third speaker on the conference call, would go a step further and decriminalize acts like “turnstile jumping”—i.e., getting into the subway system without paying. Chettiar is director of the Justice Program at the Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law. The popular “broken windows” theory of policing says that cracking down hard on minor crimes creates an atmosphere of law and order that helps prevent more serious crimes like robbery, rape, and murder. So Chettiar and others are fighting an uphill battle with their decriminalization argument. There’s no question, though, that the plight of young, black men is even worse than the statistics generally show. Coy is Bloomberg Businessweek's economics editor.

Hot and Fresh!

U.S. Today Reports..U.S. black male graduation rates lag behind whites

AP) WASHINGTON (AP) -- More than half the young black men who graduated from U.S. high schools in 2010 earned their diploma in four years, an improved graduation rate that still lagged behind that of their white counterparts, according to an education group's report released Wednesday. Sponsored Links The Schott Foundation for Public Education, which has tracked graduation rates of black males from U.S. public schools since 2004, said 52 percent of black males who entered high school in the 2006-07 school year graduated in four years. That compared with 78 percent of white, non-Latino males and 58 percent of Latino males. The foundation releases its report every two years. In 2008, the black male graduation rate was 47 percent. The progress among blacks closed the racial divide on graduation rates by 3 percentage points over nine years to a 26 percentage-point gap. The foundation said improving the graduation rates of black and Latino students has become more urgent now that the majority of babies born in the U.S. are minorities. "These outcomes are not evidence of flaws of young men, but evidence of willful neglect by federal, state, local elected policymakers and leaders," said John H. Jackson, president and CEO of the foundation, who is participating in this week's Congressional Black Caucus legislative conference, which includes education access on its agenda. With the release of the report, his organization is calling for a moratorium on school suspensions, which have been shown to be used disproportionately on minority children and children with disabilities. Copyright 2012 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed. For more information about reprints & permissions, visit our FAQ's. To report corrections and clarifications, contact Standards Editor Brent Jones. For publication consideration in the newspaper, send comments to letters@usatoday.com. Include name, phone number, city and state for verification. To view our corrections, go to corrections.usatoday.com.

Solange Knowles Angered By ‘Discrim-FRO-Nation’

SOLANGE KNOWLES claims that she was stopped and her afro searched during an airport security check in Florida last night. Knowles, the younger sister of singer Beyoncé, immediately took to her Twitter page to reveal the details of her ordeal. Tweeting a link to a story about a US woman who was also frisked during a similar check, she wrote: “I kid you not. This just happened to me” She went on: “Discrim-FRO-nation. My hair is not a storage drawer. Although, guess I couuld hide a joint up in here. *Blames "Romnesia" (my wigs name)” In September Dallas woman Isis Brantley was headed down an escalator at Hartsfield-Jackson International airport in Atlanta, after she was screened a the initial security checkpoint, when she says two TSA agents came after her asking to check her hair for explosives. Brantley says the agents began patting down her large afro in public as she waited on a train platform. Solange, who is renowned for her extravagant hairstyles, made light of the situation and challenged her Twitter followers to a “little game called: "What did TSA find in Solange's Fro"? One response from user @Remzophilos read: “the good lord, Jesus of nazareth was fount in @Solangeknowles’ fro.” She later tweeted: “Ok. Game over:( Flights taking off. Me and my wig had a lot of good laughs with y'all.” Posted on: 15/11/2012 05:14 PM

Saturday, November 3, 2012

Sunday, October 28, 2012

AP poll: Majority harbor prejudice against blacks

JENNIFER AGIESTA, Associated Press|SONYA ROSS Updated 10:21 a.m., Saturday, October 27, 2012 WASHINGTON (AP) — Racial attitudes have not improved in the four years since the United States elected its first black president, an Associated Press poll finds, as a slight majority of Americans now express prejudice toward blacks whether they recognize those feelings or not. Those views could cost President Barack Obama votes as he tries for re-election, the survey found, though the effects are mitigated by some people's more favorable views of blacks. Racial prejudice has increased slightly since 2008 whether those feelings were measured using questions that explicitly asked respondents about racist attitudes, or through an experimental test that measured implicit views toward race without asking questions about that topic directly. In all, 51 percent of Americans now express explicit anti-black attitudes, compared with 48 percent in a similar 2008 survey. When measured by an implicit racial attitudes test, the number of Americans with anti-black sentiments jumped to 56 percent, up from 49 percent during the last presidential election. In both tests, the share of Americans expressing pro-black attitudes fell. "As much as we'd hope the impact of race would decline over time ... it appears the impact of anti-black sentiment on voting is about the same as it was four years ago," said Jon Krosnick, a Stanford University professor who worked with AP to develop the survey. Most Americans expressed anti-Hispanic sentiments, too. In an AP survey done in 2011, 52 percent of non-Hispanic whites expressed anti-Hispanic attitudes. That figure rose to 57 percent in the implicit test. The survey on Hispanics had no past data for comparison. The AP surveys were conducted with researchers from Stanford University, the University of Michigan and NORC at the University of Chicago. Experts on race said they were not surprised by the findings. "We have this false idea that there is uniformity in progress and that things change in one big step. That is not the way history has worked," said Jelani Cobb, professor of history and director of the Institute for African-American Studies at the University of Connecticut. "When we've seen progress, we've also seen backlash." Obama has tread cautiously on the subject of race, but many African-Americans have talked openly about perceived antagonism toward them since Obama took office. As evidence, they point to events involving police brutality or cite bumper stickers, cartoons and protest posters that mock the president as a lion or a monkey, or lynch him in effigy. "Part of it is growing polarization within American society," said Fredrick Harris, director of the Institute for Research in African-American Studies at Columbia University. "The last Democrat in the White House said we had to have a national discussion about race. There's been total silence around issues of race with this president. But, as you see, whether there is silence, or an elevation of the discussion of race, you still have polarization. It will take more generations, I suspect, before we eliminate these deep feelings." Overall, the survey found that by virtue of racial prejudice, Obama could lose 5 percentage points off his share of the popular vote in his Nov. 6 contest against Republican challenger Mitt Romney. But Obama also stands to benefit from a 3 percentage point gain due to pro-black sentiment, researchers said. Overall, that means an estimated net loss of 2 percentage points due to anti-black attitudes. Read more: http://www.sfgate.com/news/politics/article/AP-poll-Majority-harbor-prejudice-against-blacks-3986183.php#ixzz2AblC4zEB Read more: http://www.sfgate.com/news/politics/article/AP-poll-Majority-harbor-prejudice-against-blacks-3986183.php#ixzz2Abky16Vb

Friday, October 19, 2012

Need Help with Restless Nights Part Two....Lemon Balm

What other names is Lemon Balm known by? Balm, Bálsamo de Limón, Cure-All, Dropsy Plant, Honey Plant, Melisa, Melissa, Melissa officinalis, Melissae Folium, Mélisse, Mélisse Citronnelle, Mélisse Officinale, Melissenblatt, Monarde, Sweet Balm, Sweet Mary, Toronjil. What is Lemon Balm? Lemon balm is a plant. The leaves are used to make medicine. Possibly Effective for... Alzheimer's disease. Cold sores. Colic in breast-fed infants. Improving the quality of sleep, when taken with valerian. Upset stomach (dyspepsia), when a combination of lemon balm and several other herbs is used. Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for... Loss of appetite, stomach and intestinal discomfort with bloating and gas, anxiety, sleeping disorders, restlessness, spasms, a thyroid condition called Graves' disease, promoting menstrual flow, female discomforts, cramps, headache, toothache, sores, tumors, insect bites, nervous stomach, hysteria, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and other conditions.

Fresh off the Press....

Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Great Cleaning Service With a Retro Twist

I am happy to introduce probably one of the most innovative retro cleaning services in New to the Richmond, VA area  http://pinupcleaning.webs.com/ We clean 24 hours a day 7 days a week. 
Upfront prices EVERYTIME....no gimmicks Call anytime and leave a voice mail 24 hours a day and you will be receive a response within 24 hours of your call/email/text message. We currently only clean only in Midlothian, Chester, Chesterfield, Short Pump and Powhatan VA area. We gladly accept American Express, Visa, MasterCard, Discover, Money Orders and Cash Sorry NO CHECKS Our competitors “deep clean” only when requested, we “deep clean” EVERY TIME. We only use certified green products.  Besides regular house cleaning and commercial/office cleaning, we can provide cleaning services to a wide range of facilities including: churches, schools, fitness centers and industrial sites. Pin-up Cleaning Service was started on the premise of providing clients with a unique house cleaning service that would leave you with a vacation feeling in your own home. We offer the highest quality professional cleaning services in VA with Hotel Style Etiquette. Pin-up Cleaning Service specializes in cleaning services of houses, apartments, condominiums, office cleaning and commercial establishments. We provide the most dependable and experienced staff ready to deliver quality cleaning services and the special care you deserve. Our staff is responsible and accountable for the high standards and integrity of  Pin-up Cleaning Service. We will ensure that the safety and security of your home is of top priority to our maids. Our customer service staff is always attentive to all of our clients needs and requests We have a highly sophisticated scheduling system that allows us to provide you with reliable, prompt, and flexible scheduling options. Whether you are in need of daily, weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly services, we will be there for you on time and ready to work. You can reach us 24-hours a day, and a variety of payment options, including accepting all major credit cards, cash, and money orders. Satisfaction Guaranteed Zipcodes:23112, 23113, 23114 Midlothian 23832, 23838 Chesterfield 23831,23836 Chester23139Powhatan   23233 Short Pump 23059 Wyndam23103 Manakin Sabot Pin-Up Cleaning Services Referred by Chanel Patterson When you call ask For Jamie Jones

Monday, October 1, 2012

Mello Mondays

Frank Ocean and Andre 3000 "Pink Matter" Smoke DZA and Kid Daytona "Cool Shit" Aloe Blacc "Femme Fatale" Raphael Saadiq "Stone Rollin' " Daley and Marsha "Alone Together"

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Need Help with Your Restless Nights.....Let Me Introduce you to Valerian

Overview: Valerian has been used to ease insomnia, anxiety, and nervous restlessness since the second century A.D. It became popular in Europe in the 17th century. It has also been suggested to treat stomach cramps. Some research -- though not all -- does suggest that valerian may help some people with insomnia. Germany's Commission E approved valerian as an effective mild sedative and the United States Food and Drug Administration listed valerian as "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS). Scientists aren't sure how valerian works, but they believe it increases the amount of a chemical called gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA helps regulate nerve cells and has a calming effect on anxiety. Drugs such as alprazolam (Xanax) and diazepam (Valium) also work by increasing the amount of GABA in the brain. Researchers think valerian may have a similar, but weaker effect. Insomnia Valerian is a popular alternative to prescription medications for sleep problems because it is considered to be both safe and gentle. Some studies show that it helps people fall asleep faster and feel that they have better quality sleep. One of the best designed studies found that valerian was no more effective than placebo for 14 days, but by 28 days valerian greatly improved sleep for those who were taking it. Some researchers now think you may need to take valerian for a few weeks before it begins to work. However, in another study, valerian was more effective than placebo almost immediately. Other studies show that valerian reduces the time it takes to fall asleep and improves the quality of sleep itself. Unlike many prescription sleeping pills, valerian may have fewer side effects, such as morning drowsiness. But not every study has found that valerian had a positive effect. One review of several studies found that valerian probably doesn' t work to treat insomnia. So the evidence remains contradictory, until more studies are done. Valerian is often combined with other sedating herbs, such as hops (Humulus lupulus) and lemon balm (Melissa officianalis), to treat insomnia. Plant Description: Valerian is a perennial plant that is native to Europe and grows up to 2 feet tall. It is grown to decorate gardens but also grows wild in damp grasslands. Straight, hollow stems are topped by umbrella-like heads. Its dark green leaves are pointed at the tip and hairy underneath. Small, sweet-smelling white, light purple or pink flowers bloom in June. The root is light grayish brown and has little odor when fresh. What's It Made Of?: The root of the plant is used as medicine and is pressed into fresh juice or freeze-dried to form powder. Available Forms: Valerian fluid extracts and tinctures are sold in alcohol or alcohol-free (glycerite) bases. Powdered valerian is available in capsule, tablet form, and as a tea. Valerian root has a sharp odor. It is often combined with other calming herbs, including passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), hops (Humulus lupulus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora), and kava (Piper methysticum) to mask the scent. Kava, however, has been associated with liver damage, so avoid it. How to Take It: Valerian is often standardized to contain 0.3 - 0.8% valerenic or valeric acid, although researchers aren't sure that those are the active ingredients. Pediatric Don' t give valerian to a child without first talking to your doctor. Adult For insomnia, valerian may be taken 1 - 2 hours before bedtime, or up to 3 times in the course of the day, with the last dose near bedtime. It may take a few weeks before the effects are felt. Tea: Pour 1 cup boiling water over 1 teaspoonful (2 - 3 g) of dried root, steep 5 - 10 minutes. Tincture (1:5): 1 - 1 1/2 tsp (4 - 6 mL) Fluid extract (1:1): 1/2 - 1 tsp (1 - 2 mL) Dry powdered extract (4:1): 250 - 600 mg For anxiety, 200 mg 3 - 4 times per day Once sleep improves, keep taking valerian for 2 - 6 weeks. Precautions: The use of herbs is a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs, however, can trigger side effects and can interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, you should take herbs with care, under the supervision of a health care provider. Valerian is generally regarded as safe. Most studies show no harmful effects on fertility or fetal development, but more research is needed. Experts advise pregnant and nursing women to avoid taking valerian. Some people may have a "paradoxical reaction" to valerian, feeling anxious and restless after taking it instead of calm and sleepy. For most people, valerian does not appear to cause dependency. Nor does it cause withdrawal symptoms for most. But there are a few reports of withdrawal symptoms when valerian has been used over very long periods of time. If you want to stop taking valerian, lower your dose gradually rather than stopping all at once. Don' t use valerian while driving, operating heavy machinery, or doing other things that require you to be alert. Don' t use valerian for longer than 1 month without your health care provider's approval. Possible Interactions: If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use valerian without talking to your health care provider. Medications broken down by the liver -- Valerian may slow down how quickly certain drugs are broken down by the liver. Many medications rely on the liver to break them down, so it' s possible that in some cases too much of these drugs could build up in the body. To be safe, ask your doctor before taking valerian if you are also taking any other medications. Sedatives -- Valerian can increase the effect of these drugs, including: Anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin (Dilantin) and valproic acid (Depakote) Barbiturates Benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam (Xanax) and diazepam (Valium) Drugs to treat insomnia, such as zolpidem (Ambien), zaleplon (Sonata), eszopiclone (Lunesta), and ramelteon (Rozerem) Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline (Elavil) Alcohol The same is true of other herbs with a sedating effect, such as chamomile, lemon balm, and catnip. Other drugs -- Because valerian is broken down by certain liver enzymes, it may interact with other drugs that are broken down by the same enzymes. Those drugs may include: Antihistamines Statins, taken for high cholesterol Some antifungal drugs Anesthesia -- Valerian may increase the effects of anesthesia. If you are having surgery, it is important to tell your doctors, especially your surgeon and anesthesiologist, that you are taking valerian. The doctors may recommend you slowly lower the dose of valerian before surgery. Or, they may allow you to use valerian up to the time of surgery, making any needed adjustments to the anesthesia. Alternative Names: Valeriana officinalis Reviewed last on: 5/4/2011 Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Supporting Research Ang-Lee MK, Moss J, Yuan CS. Herbal medicines and perioperative care. JAMA. 2001;286(2):208-216. Attele AS, Xie JT, Yuan CS. Treatment of insomnia: an alternative approach.Altern Med Rev. 2000;5(3):249-259. Balderer G, Borbely AA. Effect of valerian on human sleep. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1985;87(4):406-409. Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, Patterson M, Mehling W. Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2006 Dec;119(12):1005-12. Review. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000:394-400. Coxeter PD, Schluter PJ, Eastwood HL, Nikles CJ, Glasziou PP. Valerian does not appear to reduce symptoms for patients with chronic insomnia in general practice using a series of randomised n-of-1 trials. Complement Ther Med. 2003 Dec;11(4):215-222. De Feo V, Faro C. Pharmacological effects of extracts from Valeriana adscendens Trel. II. Effects on GABA uptake and amino acids. Phytother Res. 2003 Jun;17(6):661-664. Donath F, Quispe S, Diefenbach K, Maurer A, Fietze I, Roots FI. Critical evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep structure and sleep quality. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2000;33:47-53. Ernst E, ed. The Desktop Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine: An Evidence-Based Approach. New York, NY: Mosby;2001:160-162. Ernst E. Herbal medications for common ailments in the elderly. Drugs Aging. 1999;15(6):423-428. Ferri F. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2009 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2009. Gyllenhaal C, Merritt SL, Peterson SD, Block KI, Gochenour T. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4(2):229-251. Heiligenstein E, Guenther G. Over-the-counter psychotropics: a review of melatonin, St John's wort, valerian, and kava-kava. J Am Coll Health. 1998;46(6):271-276. Holst L, Nordeng H, Haavik S. Use of herbal drugs during early pregnancy in relation to maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcome. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2008;17(2):151-9. Leatherwood PD, Chauffard F, Heck E, Munoz-Box R. Aqueous extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) improves sleep quality in man. Pharm Biochem Behavior. 1982;17(1):65-71. Miller LG. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(20):2200-2211. Miyasaka LS, Atallah AN, Soares BG. Valerian for anxiety disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD004515. Review. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Valerian for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Sleep Med. 2000 Apr 1;1(2):91-99. Taibi DM, Landis CA, Petry H, et al. A systematic review of valerian as a sleep aid: Safe but not effective. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:209-230. Taibi DM, Vitiello MV, Barsness S, et al. A randomized clinical trial of valerian fails to improve self-reported, polysomnographic, and actigraphic sleep in older women with insomnia. Sleep Med. 2008 May 13. Wagner J, Wagner ML, Hening WA. Beyond benzodiazepines: alternative pharmacologic agents for the treatment of insomnia. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32(6):680-691. Wong AH, Smith M, Boon HS. Herbal remedies in psychiatric practice. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 1998;55(1):1033-1044. Yao M, Ritchie HE, Brown-Woodman PD. A developmental toxicity-screening test of valerian. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113(2):204-9. Ziegler G, Ploch M, Miettinen-Baumann A, Collet W. Efficacy and tolerability of valerian extract LI 156 compared with oxazepam in the treatment of non-organic insomnia--a randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical study. Eur J Med Res. 2002 Nov 25;7(11):480-486. A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2012 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Connect with UMMC Please rate the quality of this article. Do you find this article to be helpful / informative? Poor Excellent Do you have any brief comments on this page: (up to 255 characters) © 2011 University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC). All rights reserved. UMMC is a member of the University of Maryland Medical System, 22 S. Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201. TDD: 1-800-735-2258 or 1.866.408.6885 Read more: http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/valerian-000279.htm#ixzz27cJrns3u

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Word Life

I need her to get aquafina Daddy Rabbits.. I don't Know What Happen

Keeping It Natural Inside and Out

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New Movies Coming Soon....Support The Real!!

The Man with Iron Fist Django Unchained

Sparkle – So Bad Video

Dwele feat. Phife Diggy - What Profit

Keeping it Natural Inside and Out

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Saturday, August 25, 2012

Enlightment Corner....A Vivid Picture of Reality

Until next time....Open your Mind to the Universe and it will embrace you!

Monday, August 13, 2012

Quote of the Day

Lying to yourself and other people about what you want, need, like or do not like is like having a bacterial fungus. It spreads quickly into areas of your life and pollutes your own being. When you are polluted by the fungus of dishornor, it's diffcult to speak of for yourself. -Iyanla Vanzant

Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Moving Words for the Soul

The Gift

A gift can open cracks to complete beams of light It shines bright on all walls blinding me There is no limitations given on the happiness it can posses Its open and mines for keeps I walked in the cold dark before lost, closed, lonely and confuse For shadows to lerk preying on me and my flaws But with faith I stepped forward I waited for that beam of light through the dark ages I cried inside until I began to cry out A familiar hand with voice became vivid enough to guided me forward with no fear A divine light hit my feet dropping me to my knees The golden oppotunity appear like a golden ticket I dig to see the light to find the light was with me all along As I become the light, I will never forget to guided someone else in the dark

Saturday, July 7, 2012

Stripping the Land of Essences

No explanation is needed for this map/graph....The truth is within the photo. Special Thanks to the fan page of The Reunion of Black Family Worldwide for posting this information.

A Inspiration for Change

This month, I will be posting new videos, articles, photos, facts and more that promote inapiration for change within the community of black mind. We have enough images on a regular basis that does not improve Black life and strips us from our culture while others gravitate towards there own. It is very important to gain the natural benefits of life and culture for your mind to prepare you for the future. Every inch of the blog this month will reflect inspiration to change. All images were collected over time to spark the inner you and create a strong foundation to be proud of, Enjoy!

Wednesday, July 4, 2012

The Boondocks

http://www.gocomics.com/boondocks/2012/07/01

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Wednesday, June 13, 2012

Tuesday, June 12, 2012

A Foot Rub can Go a Long Way...

Here is a breakdown of how all nerves within your body connect to your feet. If you were wondering what to give to that special father figure in your life this weekend, give him a foot rub that would change his life. Keep track of the chart and use it in everyday life.

Keep your Body Right With the Most Useful Liquid on Earth

Here is a brief breakdown on what does water do for the body. Its very important to have the right amount of water within your body espically when you are dealing with warmer weather.

Saturday, June 9, 2012

Girl on Guy

Soul Spotlight

New Artist to Keep your Eyes On....They are bold, beautiful, and willing to give there all. The capture of revealing your soul with words can be powerful and moving to the right ears with a moral value to create a foundation for the new school to follow. Observe another level or should I say frequency, Love.

In Honor of Black Music Month The Soul Spotlight Presents

New Artist to Keep your Eyes On....They are bold, beautiful, and willing to give there all. The capture of revealing your soul with words can be powerful and moving to the right ears with a moral value to create a foundation for the new school to follow. Here are our pics for 2012.

Hot Pics for The Month

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Soul Spotlight

Big Krit has dropped his album, "Live from the Underground" and here is a preview of what to expect...the UT supports our artist with real documentaries of out time!

Friday, June 1, 2012

Flashback Fridays

Shalamar "The Second Time Around" Debarge "All This Love"

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Hot Essentials of the Month of May

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Soul Spotlight

Nas Be a N***** Too Sharon Jones and the Dap Kings Live "Let Them Knock" Erykah Badu "Me" Big Krit "Children of the World" Emeli Sande "my Kind of Love"

Friday, May 25, 2012

Flashback Fridays

Stephanie Mills- "Never knew Love like this before" Junior "Mama used to Say"

Thursday, May 24, 2012

Ethnic Minorities Are 'Largely Absent' From British Media

Study shows shockingly low number of black people working in the industry CONTROVERSIAL: Ethnic minorities are 'largely absent' from British media ETHNIC MINORITIES remain 'largely absent' from senior executive roles and staff jobs within the British media, according to new research. In the study by magazine New Statesman, it was revealed that there were no national newspaper editors or polictical editors who were not white - and that three newspapers did not have any black comment pages. It also highlighted that only one of the '100 most important media people in the Guardian’s 2011 guide' were not white. The special report was said to have been compiled by the publication following of the aftermath of the Stephen Lawrence verdict, which it said had put racism 'at the top of the political agenda'. The New Statesman’s politics senior editor, Mehdi Hasan, told the Press Gazzette: “How long can newspaper editors carry on hiring and publishing columnists who have little or no experience of these lives, backgrounds, cultures or faiths?" He added: "In 2012, 64 years after the arrival of the Empire Windrush on our shores, 36 years after the passage of the third Race Relations Act, 19 years after the racist murder of Stephen Lawrence, the great British commentariat is, in effect, a mono-racial, monocultural closed shop." Posted By...I LOVE BLACK PEOPLE... By: I Love Black People.

Saturday, May 19, 2012

SPIRITUAL INDIFFERENCE

Disposition of will by which a person is totally detached from any creature that might hinder his progress toward God. The result of grace and ascetical training by which the soul is so attached to the divine will that no desire for a created good or fear of any evil canchange its commitment to God. Practice makes perfect so take the time "pick and choose your battles" Blessings

Hot Pics of the Month

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Friday, May 18, 2012

Flashback Fridays Pics

Soul to Soul "Keep on Movin" Loose Ends "Hangin' On a String"

Two Reasons Why I Began The Back to Black Project

I will be hosting a "Back to Black" event for young black gentlemen in a small town to get a proper haircut before returning to school. I want to provided them with other supplies but I need help. If you can help out with this project in any way please contact me via email chanelpatterson@gmail.com. Some people sometimes need a reason to provided to a cause, so I decided to provided two reasons for your viewing pleasure. This project is only the start to more to come but I want to start as soon as possible. Thank you for your time and please pass the "Knowledge" along...Blessings Destroying the Next Young Black Leader... Date: Mon, 28 Feb 2000 Subject: Violence Initiative Project & Genes Beware The Violence Initiative Project: Coming Soon to an Inner City Near You by Mitchel Cohen "Unemployment runs in the genes just like bad teeth." Richard Herrnstein, Princeton University, co author of "The Bell Curve" As late as the 1980s, a small but influential coterie of prize-winning scientists were trying to prove that black children were, on average, less intelligent than white children. Intelligence, they said, ran "in the genes" of racial groups. Their evidence? They reviewed the infamous studies of "twins" who had been separated at birth and raised far from each other, to prove the validity of genetic determination of behavior. They also compiled results from IQ tests across the country and subjected them to statistical analyses, which, they claimed, showed a general differential between racial groups. This alleged differential, they went on, was due to genetic factors. These scientists -- all of whom were white -- concluded that black people were genetically inferior to whites, when it came to intelligence. And yet these smart scientists made a number of critical errors trying to squeeze their round "facts" into square holes. For one, the variation of IQ scores _within_ each racial group far outstripped the differential _between_ racial groups. So, many individual black children turned out to score higher on IQ tests than many individual white kids. In fact, there was and is no valid way of predicting how an individual child of any ethnic or racial background would, all other factors aside, perform on standardized IQ tests. A second critical blow to their theory of Aryan intellectual supremacy had to do with the nature of standardized IQ tests themselves. What exactly did these tests measure? Were they culturally or racially biased? A large body of work was presented in the 1970s and early 1980s that left in shreds the notion that standardized IQ tests measured anything "objective" at all. Many of the test's questions showed them to be racially and sexually biased; they did not speak to a black child's experience, which differs vastly from the white "norm". Lastly, Sir Cyril Burt's "twins' studies" on which many racially charged IQ assertions had been based turned out to have been fabricated, and the benighted scientist's reputation now lies in tatters and his name disgraced. Although such racially based intelligence theories never fully went away (and, let us not forget, "race" is defined in this literature as "genetically based"), they were roundly discreditedscientifically. (See, for instance, Stephen Jay Gould, "The Mismeasure of Man," W.W. Norton, 1981.) In fact, as professor Gerald Horne writes, it became increasingly clear that "research is never `neutral.' Who asks the questions, what questions are asked and what ones ignored, who pays for the research, who interprets the results are all subjective decisions outside the realm of `pure science.' The bias is built in." (1) It was not until the publication of "The Bell Curve" in the early 1990s, by Herrnstein and Murray, that some of the same quack theorists re-emerged from their crypts and, with new jargon, proceeded to offer the same white supremacy in the guise of new "scientific research." Today, some scientists are again proposing biologically deterministic explanations for behavior, but instead of focussing on the genetic basis of "intelligence" they now substitute the more au courant "violence" -- a hereditary characteristic of Black and Latino people, they say. The recent biology-and-crime movement was kicked off by the publication in 1985 of "Crime and Human Nature" by James Q. Wilson and Richa rd Herrnstein. A major media campaign followed, leading in 1992 to a report by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council, "Understanding and PreventingViolence," which called for more attention to "biological and genetic factors" in violent crime, "new pharmaceuticals that reduce violent behavior," and studies of "whether male or black persons have a higher potential for violence." Unlike the case with IQ, scientists claim they can control the alleged "genetic predisposition" of black children to committing criminal acts of violence by medicating them, before aggressive behavior and violence ensues. And so, under the aegis of the federally funded Violence Initiative Project, Gail Wasserman, a professor in Child Psychiatry at Columbia University, [she's an Associate Clinical Professor of Medical Psychology] and Daniel Pine, a medical doctor associated with the same institution [he's an Associate Professor of Clinical Psychiatry] have picked up where the utterly discredited racially based intelligence theories of Jensen, Herrnstein, Eysenck, Shockley and Murray left off. They lead a team of researchers in performing numerous experiments, partly funded by federal tax dollars, on Black and Latino children as young as six years of age. Says Gail Wasserman, Ph.D., in her funding proposal to establish a "behavioral disorders" center at Columbia University's Department of Child Psychiatry: "It is proper to focus on blacks and other minorities as they are over represented in the courts and not well studied." In one such "study" at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, Wasserman and her cohorts took 34 healthy boys, ages six to ten, and administered to them the dangerous drug, fenfluramine. Fenfluramine is the primary ingredient in the diet drug fen-phen, which has been banned by the U.S. government. (2) The boys were all from impoverished families; 44 percent were African American and 56 percent were Hispanic. The boys were made to fast for twelve hours prior to the test, and during the test were allowed only water. An intravenous catheter was inserted and designed to remain in place for five and one half hours. During that period, a dose of the drug fenfluramine hydroxide was administered (10 mg/kg). Blood was drawn hourly. Ninety percent of adult subjects experience side effects from a single dose of fenfluramine -- and here Wasserman and Pine are administering it to children! Effects of a single dose of fenfluramine on adults "frequently include anxiety, fatigue, headache, lightheadedness, difficulty concentrating, visual impairment, diarrhea, nausea, a feeling of being 'high' and irritability. (3) Federal Drug Administration studies show that the drug causes severe heart valve damage in as many as thirty percent of the adults who take it. (4) Fenfluramine has also been shown to cause a fatal heart condition known as pulmonary hypertension. (5) And studies done on rodents and monkeys showed that a single dose of fenfluramine caused microscopic damage to brain cells lasting up to 18 months. Yet the NY State Psychiatric Institute proceeded with administering fenfluramine to children -- in doses 8 times higher than that causing damage in monkeys' brains -- even after and the drug had been banned in September, 1997. In using that drug, the clinicians hypothesized they could counter the alleged racially inherited genetic predisposition to aggressive behavior and violence by increasing serotonin levels in the brain. Some scientists have correlated low serotonin levels with aggressive behavior. (Whether decreased serotonin levels _cause_ aggression or are manifested "effects" of it is a distinction all-too-often fudged in the scientists' public statements.) By increasing serotonin levels, the researchers hypothesized, they could claim that the (genetically determined) levels of serotonin are further reduced by socially adverse child rearing practices in Black and Latino familes. Through medication, they say, they could increase serotonin levels and thereby counter the negative effects of "adverse child rearing," which would prevent the kids from committing acts of violence. This despite the fact that most of the children had not committed any acts of violence at all! The children were selected because they 1) were Black or Latino, and 2) each had older siblings who had been delinquents known to the Family Court. The children's names and addresses were -- and continue to be -- sorted and channelled by government officials on the public payroll at the Department of Probation and the New York City Board of Education, and passed along to the researchers. So much for claims of legal confidentiality! This insidious involvement of public officials became known thanks primarily to expos=E9s in local newspapers, based on stories fed to reporters by anti-racist activists.(6) Forced to reply, the NYC Board of Education spokesperson denied that students had been referred for the purpose of participating in research. But the documents prove the Board was lying. In fact, writes NY Newsday, the Board's Committee on Special Education "worked closely with the researchers from the beginning." (7) And, as the Department of Probation itself has written, "We are participating in a Research Project being conducted by Professor Gail Wasserman, of Columbia University, regarding younger brothers of male offenders, in a [sic] effort to identify early predictors of anti social behavior."(8) The memo was leaked by Probation Officer Renee Jackson, who has been subjected to harassment, changed job assignments, and constant pressure ever since -- her payback for having the courage to protest the the Probation Department's complicity with the Violence Initiative Project. Nor are the experiments limited to Pine, Wasserman and other researchers from the New York State Psychiatric Institute, who have been experimenting on young minority children since 1992. Similar experiments have been going on at Queens College and Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York, and at facilities throughout the United States, under the rubric of the National Violence Initiative Project, supervised and funded through the National Institute of Mental Health. And the money is pouring in. By claiming genetic predisposition, >>psychiatrists are able to tap into the hundreds of millions of >>dollars available for genetics research -- the latest fad. That's >>the new claim for why people do anything: commit violent crimes, >>engage in homosexual or heterosexual behavior (with the latter >>still, illogically, seen as the norm), come down with certain cancers, >>even commit murder -- it's in the genes. The money, in turn, has >>fueled all sorts of similar "projects," including new methods >>for genetically frisking prisoners for "bad DNA" -- that is, >>obtaining samples of prisoners' DNA, computerizing its >>sequence and storing it for future use. >> Far less in public resources is spent on researching the effects >>of toxic by-products of industrial production and chemicalized >>agriculture in causing cancer, lead poisoning and other immune- >>compromising "diseases." Instead, funding -- and thus, blame -- >>is shifted to an individual's (or ethnic/racial grouping's) >>biological makeup, their "genetic predisposition" to, for instance, >>breast cancer (even though the "gene that causes breast >>cancer" panic of the last few years is utterly fraudulent). In >>such a framework, the widespread social and environmental >>causes are ignored and the victim becomes targeted as the >>culprit. "It's their own fault." Or, if not their "fault," the more >>liberal version goes, it's still "in their genes, poor soul." >> Thus, we see, today, psycho-surgery, lobotomies, and electro- >>shock making a comeback, as well as medicalization of what are >>fundamentally socially or environmentally caused ailments and >>behaviors. New and dangerous genetically engineered drugs are >>being tested on prisoners, soldiers and mental patients institution- >>alized in asylums or warehoused in impoverished inner city slums, >>Indian reservations, and Third World countries. To the giant >>pharmaceutical corporations, as well as to the government, these >>areas provide human guinea pigs. The Violence Initiative Project >>is the new face of what can best be described as Nazi "science" >>with an American accent. And it has been flourishing under the >>Clinton/Gore administration as much as it had under the Republicans >>-- perhaps more so. >> Holistic thinking is, to say the least, not one of Western science's >>strong points. Here in the U.S. we tend to think in terms of cause >>and effect, every effect being determined by its singular cause, >>every trait being determined by and an expression of its singular >>gene, and remedied in a similar manner. But scientists can no more >>predict the full effects of altering a single gene on an individual >>organism -- let alone on larger eco-systems in which plants, animals >>and micro-organisms evolve in precarious balance and symbiotic >>relation to each other -- than they could track a particular electron >>through a single atom, let alone through the course of a nuclear >>bomb blast or the evolution of the universe. Recent experiments >>in gene therapy have even caused the deaths of relatively >>healthy patients, and the Food and Drug Administration has >>ordered shut down human gene therapy experiments at the >>University of Pennsylvania and a review of such experiments >>throughout the US, after an inspection uncovered "numerous >>serious deficiencies" in ensuring patient safety during a >>clinical trial that cost an 18-year-old Arizona man his life.(9) >> The static and reductionistic thinking emblematic of genetic >>explanations for behavior leaves out, among other things, _process,_ >>the way in which interactions between things synergistically >>create complex environments which feed back into and reshape >>the very items said to have "caused" them, transforming the entire >>relationship. From the earliest models of how our cells work, >>reductionism provided the basic (and wrong) framework: DNA, >>most scientists said, determines genes, genes determine chromo- >>somes, which determine cells, which determine tissues, which >>determine organs, which determine organisms, which (for some) >>determine behavior, and on out into the multi-layered cosmos. >>According to the genetic model of the 1960s -- which still >>dominates most collegiate texts and certainly the public >>mindset -- the genetic information of a segment of DNA -- >>a gene -- is transcribed into messenger RNA that in turn is >>translated into a protein, one to one to one. >> But, back in the 1970s, a donkey upset the neatly piled >>applecart. "Researchers made the surprising discovery that, in >>the cells of higher organisms, messenger RNA is altered by >>enzymes _before_ its information is translated into protein >>(Chambon, 1981). In the language of genetics, pieces of RNA >>are excised from the molecule and the remaining pieces are >>fused to make the functional RNA that then serves as the >>template for protein synthesis. There is no one to one corres- >>pondence between DNA sequence and proteins."(10) >> Cellular Biologist Stuart Newman took the implicit critique of >>strict genetic determinism a step further and explicitly laid out >>multi-tiered and interactive mechanisms of development, cell >>morphogenesis and pattern formation that relied on such non- >>reductionist factors as the position of a cell with respect to >>other cells; how position affects its internal chemistry, which >>in turn impacts on salt levels and other nutrients, which >>in turn affects the development of the body's organs.(11) The >>whole, in other words, shapes the parts as much as the parts >>generate the whole. According to Newman, the interaction >>between living cells and their environment makes possible a >>vast number of pathways development of the organism could >>take. Genes should be seen more as repositories of development >>that has already happened, winnowing down the possibilities >>rather than actively determining what is _going to_ happen. >> Newman's approach removes biology from the reductionist >>framework holding it back, and brings to it a powerful dialectical >>approach. Summing up one of his many investigations, Newman >>writes: >> "Both cells and ecosystems can thus be analyzed as highly complex >>networks of large numbers of components undergoing mutually >>dependent changes in their relative abundances. But while this way >>of thinking is common among ecologists, it is not well suited to >>making precise predictions, and has failed to take hold to any >>significant extent in cell biology. Instead, the most common >>intellectual framework of cell and molecular biologists is a >>reductionist approach. The preferred objects of study are detailed >>interrelations among small numbers of relatively isolated components. >>In this paradigm, an understanding of the qualitative properties of >>the system as a whole, such as the conditions for stable, periodic, >>and chaotic behaviors, is sacrificed in favor of exact knowledge >>of a more limited set of phenomena. >> "Undoubtedly many scientists, working in this reductionist tradition, >>were surprised to learn from recent studies of so called "oncogenes" >>or cancer associated DNA, that the introduction into cells of the >>capability of making a normal cellular protein in slightly greater >>amounts, or in a slightly altered form than usual, could render that >>cell cancerous, with all the multifarious behavioral changes implied by >>that term. In spite of this, many molecular biologists, when asked to >>consider the impact of introducing new components into complex >>_ecological_ systems, have remained within their reductionist >>framework and have dismissed the potential for ecological harm >>from the release of what they consider to be well-characterized >>entities."(12) >> The scientists working on the Violence Initiative Project are >>among those trapped in the reductionist framework. They start >>where the book "The Bell Curve" leaves off -- the search for >>the gene or biological configuration that "causes" criminal behavior >>and the assumption that intelligence, poverty, and criminal behavior >>is the result of "deficient" genes. (The researchers involved do >>concede, when pressed, that environmental factors do play some >>part, but that environment mostly serves to bring out inherited >>traits that are already present.) The Violence Initiative is a >>well funded attempt to assert a genetic predisposition to commit- >>ting a violent crime, and to paint it with a racial brush. Young white >>males are seen as "less violent", and thus not genetically predisposed >>to aggressive behavior. Why? Because criminal records show that a >>much larger percentage of Black people and Latinos are involved in >>the criminal justice system, from which the siblings are drawn. The >>Violence Initiative Project seeks to provide scientific cover for >>such circular reasoning, and for the police and government repres- >>sion that has led to the criminalization of more than 1/3rd of all >>Black males in the United States. >> The race based "biological theory of aggression" is neither new >>nor scientific. One champion of the Violence Initiative, Dr. >>Frederick Goodwin, defended the "theory" before the National >>Health Advisory Council in February 1992: >> "If you look, for example, at male monkeys, especially in the >>wild, roughly half of them survive to adulthood. The other half >>die by violence. That is the natural way of it for males, to knock >>each other off and, in fact, there are some interesting evolutionary >>implications of that because the same hyperaggressive monkeys who >>kill each other are also hypersexual, so they copulate more and >>therefore they reproduce more to offset the fact that half of >>them are dying. Now, one could say that if some of the loss of >>social structure in this society, and particularly within the high >>impact inner city areas, has removed some of the civilizing >>evolutionary things that we have built up and that maybe it isn't >>just the careless use of the word when people call certain areas >>of certain cities jungles, that we may have gone back to what >>might be more natural, without all of the social controls that we >>have imposed upon ourselves as a civilization over thousands of >>years in our own evolution." (13) >> Goodwin follows in a long line of proponents of racial supremacy >>who have traded in the Klan's white sheets for white lab coats. >>They argue that social problems are caused by biologically >>defective members of oppressed classes; society can be improved >>by identifying and eliminating the propagation of these "defectives." >>In the 1850s, Louisiana physician Samuel Cartwright described a >>mental disease of slaves called "drapetomania," which caused its >>victims to run away from their masters. A century later, American >>physicians Vernon Mark, Frank Ervin and William Sweet proposed >>that urban rebellions were caused by brain damaged individuals >>who could be cured by psychosurgery (lobotomy). They received >>almost $1 million in federal funding.(14) >> In the 1970s, O.J. Andy, director of Neurosurgery at the Univer- >>sity of Mississippi, published reports on invasive surgeries he >>had performed on children who were said to be developmentally >>disabled. (All were Black.) Dr. Peter Breggin describes Andy's >>surgical achievements: JM was a nine year old boy said to be >>"hyperactive, aggressive, combative, explosive, destructive and >>sadistic" -- a prime candidate, in 1966, for O.J. Andy's psycho- >>surgery. Over a three year period, Andy operated on the child on >>four different occasions. He implanted electrodes in his brain. >>Andy concluded, in a 1970 article, that JM was no longer >>combative or aggressive. In actuality, Andy had mashed the child's >>brain, suppressing intellect and emotion, and disabled the child by >>turning him into a vegetable.(15) Dr. Andy revealed that "the kind >>of brain damage that could necessitate such radical surgery >>might be manifested by participation in the Watts Uprising. >>Such people, he diagnosed, `could have abnormal pathological >>brains.' " (16) >> The Coalition Against the Violence Initiative is leading the attack >>against such misuses of science. CAVI claims that aggressive, >>violent or criminal behavior is no more determined by genes than >>is the desire to study "the inheritance of violence" or "the >>predisposition" to become a corporate lawyer (which often runs >>in the family). One could argue that cops, generals, football >>players and many others have inherited a violence gene that >>predisposes them to committing acts of violence -- not to mention >>corporate executives and politicans who murder with their pens. >>Capitalism itself is inherently violent; the removal of the products >>of labor from those who produce it -- the underlying basis of >>the system -- requires an enormous level of violence and the system >>selects for those kinds of personalities capable of ministering to >>capital's needs. The society we live in validates that violence; but >>because it becomes part of the social substrate most don't see it >>as abnormal -- or, for that matter, as violent. Nonetheless, people >>shape, and are primarily shaped by, social -- not genetic -- >>conditions which strongly influence their activities. >> The reductionist and biodeterminist approach exemplified by >>the Violence Initiave Project is rampant in the scientific >>establishment's approach to social ills. In November, 1998, >>researchers distributed a memo to staff at George Washington >>High School in Upper Manhattan announcing a survey to be >>done on freshmen "at risk for" "negative behaviors." By now, >>we should all have an idea of what "at risk for" means. >>Youngsters so designated are to be sent to the clinic run by >>Columbia Presbyterian and the Columbia School of Public Health, >>for "assessment." >> The Coalition Against the Violence Initiative (CAVI) sent a >>strongly worded letter to the principal outlining its concerns and >>calling for cancellation of the survey. Members passed out leaflets >>to students and parents alerting them to the dangers and advising >>them not to sign consent forms. Members of Lawyers for the >>Public Interest also called the school, as did a number of >>individual teachers whom the Coalition had contacted. As we go >>to press, we have just learned of a victory for the Coalition -- >>the principal canceledthe survey. >> But despite occasional victories for those resisting genetic >>manipulation, the Violence Initiative Project, along with the >>biotech industry, is charging ahead full speed, knocking aside >>all who dare to question both the Project's and the industry's >>apparent willingness to sacrifice our lives and environment in >>their rush for profits and social control of oppositional forces. >> In a brilliant article scathing the project, Gerald Horne wrote: >> "Under the Initiative, researchers will use alleged genetic and >>biochemical markers to identify potentially violent minority >>children as young as five for biological and behavioral interventions >>-- including drug therapy and possibly psychosurgery [electro shock >>and lobotomies] -- purportedly aimed at preventing later adult >>violence. >> "The Initiative specifically rejects any examination of social, >>economic, or political questions, such as racism, poverty, or >>unemployment. Instead, this biomedical approach focuses heavily >>on the alleged role of the brain neurotransmitter, serotonin, in >>violence. Not coincidentally, this approach is favored by many >>in the medical industry."(17) >> Dr. Peter Breggin, a leading analyst in the field, has observed, >>"This [approach] corresponds with the current financial interests >>of the pharmaceutical industry, since several drugs affecting >>serotonin neurotransmission have been submitted for approval >>to the Food and Drug Administration. ... The controversial anti- >>depressant, Prozac, is the first of these serotonergic drugs, >>and it has become the largest moneymaker in the pharmaceutical >>industry."(18) >> Against this backdrop, NIH provided a hefty $100,000 grant >>for a conference entitled "Genetic Factors in Crime: Findings, >>Uses and Implications." It was to be sponsored by the Institute >>for Philosophy and Public Policy at the University of Maryland >>and slated for October 1992. The promotional brochure promised >>that "genetic research holds out the prospect of identifying >>individuals who may be predisposed to certain kinds of criminal >>conduct, of isolating environmental features which trigger those >>predispositions, and of treating some predispositions with drugs >>and unintrusive therapies."(19) Genetic research also gains impetus >>from the shortcomings of liberal "environmental" approaches to >>crime -- deterrence, diversion and rehabilitation.(20) Thus, the >>failure of the liberal paradigm (as opposed to the many radical >>models developed by social movements in conjunction with truly >>engaged scientists which, of course, has never been tried in the >>U.S.), has now allowed focus to shift to exclusively genetic >>and medical "solutions." >> Radicals, however, _have_ succeeded in leaving our mark. In >>the 1970s we managed to beat back attempts by William Shockley >>and others to lay a pseudo scientific basis for the racial inheritance >>of intelligence, and the disastrous policy implications being pursued >>at the time, by refuting each and every "scientific" assertion they >>made, as well as by exposing their funding sources. So too with the >>Violence Initiative Project, at least initially. "The ensuing protest >>caused NIH to freeze conference funding -- temporarily. The >>objections were led by enraged African Americans concerned >>that, in these dangerous times, such a project could easily be >>transformed into directed genocide. Their concern was not assuaged >>when it was revealed that Reagan appointee Marianne Mele Hall >>proclaimed that black and brown people are culturally or even >>genetically inferior. They have been conditioned, she said, 'by >>10,000 years of selective breeding for personal combat and the >>anti-work ethic of jungle freedoms' and were therefore unfit >>for civic life. Great Society programs just `spoiled' them, she >>argued, encouraging a sense of entitlements that led to laziness, >>drug use, and crime, particularly crime against whites.' " (21) >> Which brings us back to Goodwin. When we last left him, he >>was being chastised for making similar reference to jungles, >>comparing Black people with monkeys. Dr. Horne writes: "By >>associating African Americans with monkeys and `hypersexuality,' >>Goodwin tapped into a wellspring of racist sentiment." Health and >>Human Services Secretary Dr. Louis Sullivan joined many others >>and criticized Goodwin's remarks. But Goodwin's disfavor >>lasted, oh, around a week. Shortly thereafter, Sullivan in effect >>rewarded Goodwin by appointing him head of the influential >>National Institute of Mental Health -- a post not requiring Senate >>approval. >> Since leaving the federal government, Sullivan has gone on to >>his latest crusade: testifying alongside former President Jimmy >>Carter on behalf of Monsanto and the wonders of genetically- >>engineered agriculture. >> As for Goodwin, his first project as head of the National >>Institute of Mental Health: Approval of funding for the National >>Violence Initiative.(22) >> THE RESULTS ARE IN >> The long awaited results of the "studies" on young children are >>now in. They are exactly the reverse of what had been expected! >>The children, genetically and hormonally "predisposed" to >>aggression and violence due to low serotonin levels and bad >>parenting, turn out to have normal or elevated serotonin levels! >>(Remember: the researchers hypothesized that _low_ serotonin >>levels led to aggression and violence). >> Case closed? Guess again. Since Wasserman, Pine, et al. had >>determined in advance what their conclusions were to be, and >>since their golden egg laying goose needed to be coaxed yet >>again for further funding, they "explained" these results by >>inventing, out of thin air, the conclusion that _serotonin has >>the opposite effect in children as in adults._ Perhaps, they >>continued, high serotonin in childhood _leads_ to low serotonin >>in adults. Thus, they took a group of Black and Latino kids with >>no history of trouble, in whom no expected abnormalities were >>found, whose serotonin levels were basically normal or slightly >>higher than expected and waved their magic wand, to draw more >>funds for their Nazi research. >> But similar projects are underway throughout the city and, indeed, >>throughout the country, as is resistance to them. CAVI has >>targeted the NY Psychiatric Institute on a number of occasions. >>Last year, a small group from the Coalition decided to take their >>protests directly to the source. They picketed the "Mood & Anxiety >>Disorders in Children" conference at the Hotel Pennsylvania >>(New York City), where Daniel Pine was a featured speaker (topic: >>"Psychobiology and Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders in >>Youth"). In incestuous arrangements that are growing increasingly >>common, the "scientific" program was supported in part by a grant >>from Solvay Pharmaceuticals. Two CAVI activists were arrested >>and dragged out of the proceedings after attempting to hang >>a banner from the balcony. They were strip-searched by guards >>while awaiting arraignment, and now face criminal charges. >> >>The Coalition fears that those most affected by Wasserman, Pine, >>et al. -- the parents and children -- remain largely uninformed >>about the nature and outlook of the studies being conducted on >>them. CAVI remains as skeptical as ever about the labeling of a >>large number of children, disproportionately minority and poor >>children, as having mental illness, and about the role of genetic >>explanations in legitimizing racial supremacist ideas and behavior >>-- in the name of "science". Those honestly concerned with children's >>mental health should take action to heal their environment, in the >>familial as well as broader sense, rather than looking for genetic, >>hormonal and other causes of children's distress within the >>kids' biological makeup. >> >>It is sad day in the gulag, indeed, when the death of a patient, >>as in the University of Pennsylvania genetic treatment experiment, >>goes unreported because it is considered "proprietary business >>information." The interface between funding and research has >>always been an awkward match in the U.S. The Violence Initiative >>Project is another way of deploying new levels of repression, >>using the rhetoric of "science" as a smokescreen for white >>supremacist ideology -- and control. >> >>For more information, please contact: The Coalition Against >>the Violence Initiative, c/o Social Justice Ministries, The >>Riverside Church, 490 Riverside Drive, NYC 10027. Also: >>Carol Cage, (212) 330 8677 or (212) 927 9053. >> >>NOTES >> 1. Gerald Horne, "Race Backwards: Genes, Violence, Race and Genocide," CovertAction Quarterly, Winter 1992-93, p.34. 2. Daniel S. Pine et al., "Neuroendocrine Response to Fenfluramine Challenge in Boys," 54 Arch. Gen. Psych. 839, 840 (September 1997). Also, see Daniel S. Pine et al., "Platelet Serotonin 2A (5 HT 2A) Receptor Characteristics and Parenting Factors for Boys at Risk for Delinquency: A Preliminary Report," American Journal of Psychiatry, 1996, 538, 539, which describes a second experiment conducted on the same 34 boys. (Note that the earlier study was published last.) 3. Matthew F. Muldoon et al., "D. L Fenfluramine Challenge Test: Experience in Nonpatient Sample," 39 Biological Psych. 761, 765 (1996). 4. "Questions and Answers Concerning the Department of Health >>and Fenfluramine," Food & Drug Administration, Nov. 13, 1997. >>http://www.fda.gov/cder/news/fenqal11397.htm.; also, Gina >>Kolata, "Two Popular Diet Pills Are Withdrawn from Market," >>The NY Times, Sept. 16, 1997. >> >>5. Cliff Zucker, Disability Advocates, Inc., and Ruth Lowenkron, >>Disability Law Center, NY Lawyers for the Public Interest, >>Inc., December 23, 1997 letter to Clifford C. Sharke, Chief, >>Assurance Branch, Division of Human Subject Protections, >>Office of Protection from Research Risks, Rockville MD. >> >>6. "Half Truths and Consequences: Did Doctors Mislead the >>Parents of Kids they Experimented On?," Village Voice, May 5, >>1998; "Kid drug test foes picket new hosp site," NY Post, May 9, >>1998; "Thugs in Bassinets: Teen age violence, studies suggest, >>begins in the first three years of life," NY Times, May 17, 1998; >>"Drug tst kids bay have been forced: Kin hoped other sibs might >>benefit," NY Post, June 12, 1998; "Ed. Board referred kids for >>drug study, NY Post, July 28, 1998; "Students Ended Up In >>Study: Psych referrals became part of drug research," >>Newsday, July 28, 1998.) >> >>7. Indeed, the original proposal submitted to the National >>Institute of Mental Health, refers to the special education >>committee as "one particularly productive referral source," >>and noted that researchers had made "successful liaisons with >>a number of schools and agencies throughout the New York >>metropolitan area." >> >>8. Robert Stone, Branch Chief, Department of Probation, to: >>Manhattan Family Intake and Investigation Probation Officer, >>August 30, 1991. >> >>9. Sheryl Gay Stolberg, NY Times, Jan. 22, 2000, "Gene Therapy >>Ordered Halted at University". "The decision to place the entire >>program -- eight experiments, including five active clinical trials >>in diseases ranging from cystic fibrosis to breast cancer -- on >>"clinical hold" is highly unusual. The hold is indefinite, agency >>officials said, and will not be lifted until the agency is convinced >>that the university's Institute for Human Gene Therapy can follow >>federal rules designed to protect study volunteers from harm. The >>agency's action comes two days after its investigators completed >>a detailed inspection of patient records and laboratory data from >>the experiment that killed the Tucson man, Jesse Gelsinger, on >>Sept. 17. Mr. Gelsinger died of multiple organ failure caused by >>a severe immune reaction to an infusion of corrective genes and >>is the first person to have died as a direct result of gene therapy." >> >>10. Craig Holderedge, "Genetics and the Manipulation of Life: >>The Forgotten Factor of Consequences," Lindisdale Press. >> >>11. Stuart Newman, "Generic physical mechanisms of morpho- >>genesis and pattern formation as determinants in the evolution >>of multicellular organization," J. Biosci., 17, 3, Sept. 1992, >>pp.193-215. >> >>12. Stuart Newman, "Dynamic Balance in Living Systems," Gene- >>WATCH, Nov. Dec. 1985, reprinted in Mitchel Cohen, "Biotech- >>nology & the New World Order, Red Balloon Publications, 1998. >> >>13. Warren Leary, "Struggle Continues Over Remarks by Mental >>Health Official," New York Times, March 8, 1992, p. 34. >> >>14. Mark, Ervin & Sweet, "Violence and the Brain," discuss the >>case of a young white male, Thomas K., who had undergone >>brain surgery to cure his epilepsy and propensity for violent >>behavior. They claimed that he was saved by psychosurgery >>(lobotomy). His mother claimed, on the other hand, that the >>doctors had turned him into a vegetable. (See Mehler, Barry, >>"In Genes We Trust: Where Science Bows to Racism," Reform >>Judaism, Winter, 1994.) >> >>15. Peter Breggin, "Campaign Against Racist Federal Programs >>by the Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology," >>Journal of African American Men, Winter 1995/6. >> >>16. B.J. Mason, "Brains Surgery to Control Behavior: >>Controversial Options Are Coming Back as Violence Curbs," >>Ebony, February 1973, p.68. >> >>17. Gerald Horne, "Race Backwards: Genes, Violence, Race, >>and Genocide," CovertAction #29, Winter 1992-93. >> >>18. Peter Breggin, "The Violence Initiative -- a Racist Bio- >>medical Program for Social Control," The Rights Tenet, >>(Center for the Study of Psychiatry) Summer 1992. >> >>19. Christopher Anderson, "NIH Under Fire ...," Nature, July >>30, 1992, p.357. >> >>20. Vince Bielski, "Hunting the Crime Gene," San Francisco >>Weekly, June 15, 1992. >> >>21. Horne, op cit., citing Micaela di Leonardo, "White Lies: Rape, >>Race and the Myth of the Black Underclass," Village Voice, >>September 22, 1992. >> >>22. cf., Mitchel Cohen, "The U.S. Government's Secret >>Experimentation with Biological & Chemical Warfare," Red >>Balloon, 1995. >> >>Mitchel Cohen organizes with the Brooklyn Greens / Green >>Party of NY State, the Red Balloon Collective, and the Direct >>Action Network to Free Mumia Abu Jamal and Leonard Peltier. NIH Funded Research Link to Search by Key Terms, Link on V, and search for Violence. Here's a sample list of studies you'll find: Funded Study at USC on Social and physiological risk factors for violence Funded study at University of Illinois at Chicago Funded study on drug-related gang violence at University of Texas, San Antonio Funded research on understanding violent injury in young black men Funded research on measuring psychopathy in female offenders at University of Wisconsin, Madison Funded research on Cross National Study of youth drugs/violence nexus at University of Delaware Funded research onEpidemiologic Center for early risk behaviors - Prevention at Johns Hopkins University Funded research on Alcohol, Violence, and Female Gangs at Scientific Analysis Corp. Funded research on processes linking violence exposure and teenage outcome Funded research on Modified risk factors for youth violence at University of Washington Funded research on community based intervention for children at the Friends Research Institute

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